tha mi trang an dugh / present
bha mi sgith an dè / past
bha an duine glè ard / past
bidh iad uil aig an taigh a-nochd / future tense / they will all be…..
bhithinn I would be
bhiodh / bhitheadh tu you would be
bhiodh / bhitheadh e, i he she it would be
bhiomaid / bhitheamaid we would be
Try to write something about yourself:
Is mise Joseph agus tha mi a´fuireach ann an Alba. Bha mi a´fuireach ann an flat ann am Pàislig, Tha am beagan Gaìdhlig. Tha mi ag ionnsachadh….
a bheil Ghaìlig agad / an robh Ghaìlig agad
chan eil Ghaìlig agad / cha robh Ghaìlig agad
Nach eil Ghaìlig agad / nach robh Ghaìlig agad
As I understand it, lenition is something which has been “evolving” to smooth the letters of the language for many centuries. What we know of lenition today is perhaps the remaining part. Simply the insertion of the letter H into the word after the first letter. Much older forms of lenition have been absorbed into vocabulary and you can see evidence of these in words like sèimh or fliuch which looked very different in the past and whose endings were lenited.
Remember the list of consonants which can be lenited from last time, not all consonants are lenited. C, B, M, D, G, S, T, P, F The letters L, N and R also lenite but are not written, you need to keep this in mind.
Below are the conditions of lenition
Choisich mi past tense *we will discuss that later, along with other tenses which can be lenited
oidhche mhath adjectives with feminine noun
mo bhràthair possessives mo, do and a, *only these possessives, always lenite. Possessives also cause the word to insert a vowel near the end of the word, Its called slenderisation. We will talk about that later.
bho, de, do, fo, gun, mar, mu, ro, tro prepositions which cause lenition.
corra deagh, droch, priomh, sàr, seann adjectives which lenite
glè mhath modifiers glè, fior, ro
aon, dà, a’chiad these numbers lenite
bu this verb lenites
cha negative particle lenites.
Tha an la fuàr (pronounced fooar)
You can see here a literal translation “Is the day cold”
Tha – is
an – the
la – day
fuàr – cold
This is a great sentence to explain the word order of Gaelic. Verb first, subject and then the other bit .
Tha mi fuàr – I am cold
A good exercise for today would be to sit down with a Gaelic dictionary and try to make new sentences with the verb “to be”. As your knowledge gets better we can revisit those later. Try to write some descritions of yourself or of people you know.
Tha mi Caraid (Caritsh) I am a friend. You will notice that there is no “a” in the Gaelic but I put this into the English translation. The “a” as an article before a noun does not exist in Gaelic. It nly exists when we use “the” like the example “Tha an la fuàr”. We can see “an”. We will talk more about that later.
Tha e saighdear (sy-tshir) he is (a) soldier.
These are simple sentences and we will make them more complex as we continue but right now, I want to keep it simple for a while until you understand the basics and get some vocabulary.
Audio will follow shortly
Failte! – Welcome, in this lesson we will talking about the verb to be. Sometimes in written Gaelic you might see a little “´” above some of the letters, we will talk about those later. I have not included them yet. Continue reading “Scottish Gaelic Lesson 2 – The Verb “To Be” – “Tha””