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Scottish Gaelic lesson 18 -More tense examples

tha mi trang an dugh /        present

bha mi sgith an dè /             past

bha an duine glè ard /         past

bidh iad uil aig an taigh a-nochd / future tense / they will all be…..

 

Imperfect form

 

bhithinn                                I would be

bhiodh / bhitheadh tu        you would be

bhiodh / bhitheadh e, i       he she  it would be

bhiomaid / bhitheamaid    we would be

 

 

 

 

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Scottish Gaelic Lesson 17 – Possessives and word change

One absolutely frightening thing about Gaelic is that when you think you know a word, suddenly that word appears looking very very different leaving the reader very very confused. Some of these differences we have already spoken about, like an H coming in after the first letter, or an I being added at the end (lenition and slenderisation).

In Slenderisation particularly, when the I is added, another vowel letter sometimes changes. This happens a lot, but today we want to focus on  short nouns because these usually change when they are in the possessive.

Try to examine the following and complete the ones which are missing:

 

Ceann becomes cinn / mo chinn / my head

fear becomes fir / còta an fhir mhòir / coat of the big man

mac becomes mic / ainm a mic / name of her son

falt becomes fuilt

eun becomes eòin

bard becomes bhùird

Please see  page 32 of Gràmar na Gàidhlig by MIchael Byrne

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Gaelic Lesson 16: Adjectives

As in English, we have two types of adjectives:

  1. the adjectives before the noun (the green man )
  2. the adjectives after the noun (the man is green)

The same rules apply in Gaelic but can be a little bit vague when trying to translate because the adjective comes immediately after the noun (not before) in both cases. As always there are exceptions to this rule and there are some appearing before.

The rules surrounding the lenition of singular adjectives is fairly complicated and I think it is best to learn these “on the go”. More will be said about these as we move forward.

 

points to note:

some masculine adjectives lenite if they are with prepositions or possessives. Slenderising only happens with the possessive and an article where the adjective is masculine .

Feminine adjectives always lenite, however they also add an E if the noun is in its long form.

In plural adjectives, an “a” is added at the end, otherwise they do not change

brògan ùra

the adjective can be lenited with some  plurals,

balaich bheairteach

 

 

 

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Gaelic Lesson 14 – Tràth Caithte and More About Tenses

Tha mi a ‘sgrìobhadh leabhar.
(Tha sibh etc…..)
Tràth Caithte

Bha mi a ’sgrìobhadh leabhar.

(Bha sibh etc……..)
The above examples show the most common and easiest ways to create the present tense and past, using the continuous of the verb “to be” . To use the simple present (instead of the Continuous present) there is a construction, unusual in Gaelic, using the future tense.
Sgriobhadh mi or bidh mi a´sgriobhadh
The future tense used as the present simple is more common when we talk about things we do habitually and things which happen a lot or are generally true. Practice will make this clearer.  Please try to use the continuous until you have more practice with this.
____________________________________________________
H is added to create the simple past, here is a chart of imperatives. Notice the irregular form of “DH” with vowels” and “F”.  It is also interesting to notice that nothing happens to “SG” and “R”
Imperative English Translation Past Tense English Translation
fàg! leave! dh’fhàg left
ionnsaich! learn! dh’ionnsaich learnt
pòg! kiss! phòg kissed
obair! work! dh’obair worked
sabaid! fight! shabaid fought
sgrìobh! write! sgrìobh wrote
ruith! run! ruith run
seas! sit! sheas sat
teasgaisg! teach! theagaisg taught
tog! lift! thog lifted

dh´ionnsaich e

dhionnsaich thu anns an obair sin?

It is formed by exactly the same rules as the continuous present tense.

Questions etc and how to ask them will be shown later
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Gaelic Lesson 13: Tha Seosaidh ann.

Is mise Seosaidh, Tha mi a Cill Bhreannain agus tha mi nam mhaighstir-sgoile.  Tha mi a ‘fuireach ann am Pàislig. Thàinig mo theaghlach à Ìle.

Is mise  fear-gèidh,  bàrd,  bruadaire, agus  cluicheadair piàna.

Cur-seachadan agus ùidhean

Agus a’ bruidhinn ri mo charaidean air-loidhne, ’S e tidsear a th’ annam, Air-loidhne.

Meadhanan Ceilteach

Cànan nan Gàidheal

http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/ionnsachadh/

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Scottish Gaelic Lesson 11 – Practice

In the previous 10 lessons, I have given you the basics of Gaelic Grammar, mainly in English, to set the scene for using the present tense.

We have more than enough information to make Gaelic sentences therefore, this blog will now contine in Gaelic, to force you to practice new vocabulary and grammar.

When we move to more complex grammar topics, I will likely switch to English to explain them.

So, I recommend that you get yourself a good dictionary and start using programs like memrise where you will find free vocabulary flashcards and games.